Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modules are, in essence, solid state heat pumps that operate according to the Peltier effect.
When an electrical current is supplied, the devices are capable of cooling or heating and can bethermally cycled using a multitude of electronic control methods. Alternatively, they may be used to minimize the effects of temperature coefficients on oscillator stability, reference voltages and amplifier offsets by providing temperature control.
Thermoelectric cooler modules are ideal for applications that require active temperature control below ambient temperatures. A design engineer should consider thermoelectric cooling when a system design requires localised electronic cooling/heating with precise temperature control, high reliability, suitability for hazardous, extreme or remote environments and compact shapes and geometries.